|Ed, you did not read the paper; and you missed my point. While it is true that some studies extend beyond the campus, most do not, and certainly have not. Even studies of young children and infants take subjects whose parents are often are university students. So, to assert that it is "human nature to share" as some here have claimed based on "university studies" is unfounded. You and I agree on that much.|
The work I cited in Post Number 9 was this:
"The Weirdest People in the World: How representative are experimental findings from American university students? What do we really know about human psychology?" by Joseph Henrich, Steven J. Heine, and Ara Norenzayan (University of British Columbia) In the bibliography of that paper are these from the researchers you cited above in Number 13. Note that the very paper the abstract of which you cited is listed here as "unpublished manuscript." In other words the authors of "The Weirdest People" read that paper before it was accepted by a journal. Thus, if you had read "The Weirdest People" you would have seen this research.
linked here http://hci.ucsd.edu/102b/readings/WeirdestPeople.pdf
Why Humans Cooperate: A Cultural and Evolutionary Explanation Oxford University Press. "The Weirdest People" explains how different cultures have played the Dictator Game and the Punishment Game. It is not a surprise that in Russia and Saudi Arabia, for example, more people will give up winnings of their own just to altruistically punish someone else. That is why the authors called us "the weirdest people": they found other studies of other people from around the world.The paper "Markets, Religion, Community Size, and the Evolution of Fairness and Punishment" by Joseph Henrich, Jean Ensminger, et al., as a PDF (without a subscription to Science) here.
Henrich, J. (2008) A cultural species. In: Explaining Culture Scientifically, ed.^eds. M. Brown, University of Washington Press.
Henrich, J., Boyd, R., Bowles, S., Camerer, C., Fehr, E., Gintis, H., McElreath, R., Alvard, M., Barr, A., Ensminger, J., Henrich, N., Hill, K., Gil-White, F., Gurven, M., Marlowe, F. W., Patton, J. Q. & Tracer, D. (2005) 'Economic Man' in Cross-cultural Perspective: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies. Behavioral & Brain Sciences 28: 795-815.
Henrich, J., Ensminger, J., McElreath, R., Barr, A., Barrett, C., Bolyanatz, A., Cardenas, J. C., Gurven, M., Gwako, E., Henrich, N., Lesorogol, C., Marlowe, F., Tracer, D. & Ziker, J. (n.d.). Market, religion, community size and the evolutio nof fairness and punishment.Unpublished manuscript, Vancouver.
Henrich, J. & Henrich, N. (under review) Fairness without punishment: behavioral experiments in the Yasawa Island, Fiji. In: Experimenting with Social Norms: Fairness and Punishment in Cross-Cultural Perspective ed.^eds. J. Henrich & J. Ensminger, Russell Sage Press.
Henrich, J. & McElreath, R. (2002) Are Peasants Risk-Averse Decision Makers? Current Anthropology 43(1): 172-181.
Henrich, J., McElreath, R., Ensminger, J., Barr, A., Barrett, C., Bolyanatz, A., Cardenas, J. C., Gurven, M., Gwako, E., Henrich, N., Lesorogol, C., Marlowe, F., Tracer, D. & Ziker, J. (2006) Costly Punishment Across Human Societies. Science 312: 1767-1770.
Henrich, J. & Smith, N. (2001) Culture matters in bargaining and cooperation: cross-cultural evidence from the Machiguenga, the Mapuche and Americans. In: Cooperation, reciprocity and punishment: experiments in fifteen small-scale societies; Manuscript, ed.^eds.
- Henrich, N. S. & Henrich, J. (2007)
You assert that being willing to give up 20% of your winnings with no benefit to oneself in order to punish someone else whom you regard as "unfair to others" somehow validates the establishment of government as an overseer of "fairness." It may. That is not the same thing as the government as a protector of rights.
The reason that we have such massive government regulation of the economy is expressly because of these primitive religionist urges to punish other people who have not harmed you. "We must have a level playing field." Why? And what business is it of yours? MYOB. Where is the harm to you if someone else pays what you consider "too much" for a car or a stereo or suborbital rocket ride?
And how can you even feign surprise that Christians and Muslims are happy to altruistically punish others?
(Edited by Michael E. Marotta on 9/23, 6:34pm)